Archaeological Survey

This text reviews the theory, concepts, and basic methods involved in archaeological analysis.  Its aim is to familiarize both students and professionals with the principles that underlie many kinds of archaeological analysis, to encourage sound laboratory practice, and to demonstrate some of the co...

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Main Author: Banning, E. B. (Author)
Corporate Author: SpringerLink (Online service)
Format: SpringerLink eBooks
Language:English
Published: Boston, MA : Springer US : Imprint: Springer, 2002.
Series:Manuals in Archaeological Method, Theory, and Technique,
Subjects:
Online Access:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0769-7
Table of Contents:
  • I. Introduction
  • 1. A Brief History of Archaeological Survey
  • 2. Survey’s Unique Contribution to Archaeology
  • 3. Surface Distributions and Buried Landscapes
  • 4. Research Design in Archaeological Survey
  • II. The Goals of Archaeological Survey
  • 1. Types of Goals
  • III. The Discovery of Archaeological Materials by Survey
  • 1. Factors Affecting Archaeological Detection
  • 2. Estimating Discovery Probabilities
  • 3. Post-depositional Factors that Affect Spatial Pattern
  • 4. Summary
  • IV. Units, Sampling Frames, and Edge Effects in Archaeological Survey
  • 1. The Spatial Distribution of Material Culture
  • 2. Boundaries of the Survey Area
  • 3. Types, Shapes, and Orientation of Units
  • 4. Scale Effects in Archaeological Survey
  • 5. Conclusions
  • V. Sampling Space: Statistical Surveys
  • 1. Sampling Designs
  • 2. Sample Size and Estimation
  • 3. Using Samples
  • 4. Conclusion
  • VI. Purposive Survey: Prospection
  • 1. Prospecting
  • 2. Prospection to Test Models or Hypotheses
  • 3. Bayesian Prospection and Operations Research
  • 4. Game Theory and Linear Programming in Optimal Searches
  • 5. Conclusions
  • VII. Surveying for Spatial Structure
  • 1. What is Spatial Structure?
  • 2. “The Case for Total Survey”
  • 3. How to Survey for Spatial Structure
  • 4. Conclusion
  • VIII. Cultural Resource Management and Site Significance
  • 1. What is Cultural Resource Management?
  • 2. Regional Impact assessments by Field Survey
  • 3. Assessing Significance
  • 4. Administrative, Ethical, and Legal Aspects of CRM
  • 5. Conclusion
  • IX. Surveying Sites and Landscapes
  • 1. Fieldwalking and Surface Survey
  • 2. Common Attributes of Sites
  • 3. Examining Sites and Collecting or Recording Artifacts
  • 4. Documenting “Non-Site” or “Off-Site” Material Culture
  • 5. Intertidal Surveys
  • 6. Controls and Data Quality
  • 7. Conclusion
  • X. Evaluating Surveys
  • 1. Assessing Detection Probabilities
  • 2. Assessing the “Exhaustion” of a Region
  • 3. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Sampling
  • 4. Assessing the Reliability of Crew Observations
  • 5. Assessing Bias in the Characterization of Finds
  • 6. Assessing Variations in Collection Method
  • 7. Conclusion
  • XI. Surveying the Future
  • 1. Survey’s Expanding Role
  • 2. Investigating “Hidden” and Neglected Landscapes
  • 3. Survey Method and Technology
  • 4. Mathematical Approaches to Survey Theory and Evaluation
  • 5. Conclusion
  • Appendix 1. Health, Safety, and Practical Matters in Field Survey
  • 1. Health and Safety in Field Survey
  • 1.1 Notifying Landowners and Relevant Authorities or Agencies
  • 1.2 Educating Team Members
  • 1.3 First-Aid
  • 1.4 Communication
  • 1.5 Preparation for Weather
  • 1.6 Risk of Encountering High-voltage Lines, Toxic Waste, or Explosives
  • 1.7 Risks from Animals or Disease
  • 1.8 Risk from Hunters or Military Activity
  • 1.9 Insurance
  • 2. Outfitting the Survey Crew
  • 2.1 Personal Gear and Bad-weather Gear
  • 2.2 Mapping and Recording Instruments
  • 2.3 Sampling Equipment and Supplies
  • 2.4 Safety Equipment
  • 3. Crew Training and Orientation.